Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal disorder that affects individuals with ovaries, primarily women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by a range of symptoms and hormonal imbalances, which can have significant effects on a person's menstrual cycle, fertility, and overall health. It is also known as metabolic disorder which will affect other organs of the body.

Here is a comprehensive overview of PCOS, including its cause, symptoms, prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis:

– Prevalence

PCOS is a prevalent condition, and its prevalence varies by population and diagnostic criteria. Estimates suggest that PCOS affects up to 10% of women of childbearing age, making it one of the most common hormonal disorders in women.


The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some key factors and contributing factors include:

Generally PCOS is divided into Obese PCOS and Lean PCOS

Hormonal Imbalances

PCOS is characterized by imbalances in reproductive hormones, particularly elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone.

Insulin Resistance

Many individuals with PCOS have insulin resistance, which means their bodies have trouble using insulin effectively to regulate blood sugar levels. This can lead to increased insulin production, high insulin levels, and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.

Genetic Factors

There appears to be a genetic component to PCOS, as it often runs in families especially in Lean PCOS.

Environmental Factors

Lifestyle factors such as obesity and a sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the development and severity of PCOS symptoms.


PCOS can present with a wide range of symptoms, and not all individuals with PCOS will experience the same symptoms. Common symptoms include:

Irregular Menstrual Cycles

This may manifest as irregular periods, prolonged periods, or unpredictable bleeding patterns.


Elevated androgen levels can lead to symptoms such as hirsutism (excessive hair growth), acne, and male-pattern baldness.

Polycystic Ovaries

On ultrasound imaging, the ovaries may appear enlarged and contain numerous small, fluid-filled sacs (follicles).

Fertility Challenges

PCOS is a common cause of infertility due to irregular ovulation or anovulation (lack of ovulation).

Insulin Resistance

Often associated with obesity, insulin resistance can lead to weight gain, increased hunger, and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes.


Diagnosing PCOS typically involves a combination of the following:

Medical History

A healthcare provider will inquire about menstrual history, symptoms, and family history.

Physical Examination

This may include examination for abnormal hair growth and a pelvic examination.

Blood Tests

Hormone levels, including androgens, estrogen, and insulin, may be measured to assess hormonal imbalances.


Transvaginal ultrasound may be used to visualize the ovaries and look for the presence of polycystic ovaries.


Treatment for PCOS is individualized based on the specific symptoms and concerns of the person. Common treatment approaches include:

Lifestyle Modifications

Weight management through diet and exercise can help improve insulin sensitivity and reduce symptoms.

Hormonal Birth Control

Oral contraceptives can regulate menstrual cycles and manage androgen-related symptoms.

Anti-Androgen Medications

Medications such as spironolactone or hormonal therapy may be prescribed to address hirsutism and acne.

Fertility Treatments

For individuals trying to conceive, fertility medications (e.g., clomiphene) and assisted reproductive technologies (e.g., in vitro fertilization) may be recommended.

Insulin-Sensitizing Medications

Metformin is sometimes prescribed to improve insulin sensitivity and manage metabolic aspects of PCOS.

Surgical Procedures

In some cases, surgery may be necessary like drilling of ovaries especially for conception.

– Prognosis

The prognosis for PCOS is generally good with proper management and treatment. Many individuals with PCOS can effectively manage their symptoms and go on to lead healthy lives. However, long-term health considerations include the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other metabolic conditions. Regular medical care, lifestyle modifications, and addressing underlying health concerns are essential for maintaining overall well-being for those with PCOS.

It's important for individuals who suspect they have PCOS or are experiencing related symptoms to seek evaluation and guidance from a specialist, consult with Dr Vindhya Gemaraju. An accurate diagnosis and a tailored treatment plan can help manage symptoms and reduce potential risks associated with PCOS.

What is the difference between PCOS and PCOD

PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) and PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Disease) are two terms that are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different implications:

1. PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome)

  • PCOS is a syndrome, which means it is a collection of symptoms that occur together. It is a common hormonal disorder that affects people with ovaries of reproductive age.
  • PCOS is characterized by a combination of symptoms, which can include irregular menstrual cycles, high levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, and the presence of cysts (small fluid-filled sacs) on the ovaries.
  • In addition to reproductive issues, PCOS can also be associated with other health concerns, such as insulin resistance, obesity, acne, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth).
  • The exact cause of PCOS is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, hormonal, and lifestyle factors.

2. PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Disease)

  • PCOD is an older term that has been used to describe a condition where multiple cysts are present on the ovaries. It is not a syndrome but rather a description of the physical appearance of the ovaries.
  • PCOD may or may not be associated with the other hormonal and metabolic symptoms commonly seen in PCOS. Some individuals with PCOD may have irregular periods, while others may not.
  • The term "PCOD" is less commonly used in modern medical practice, and many healthcare professionals prefer to use "PCOS" because it encompasses not only the ovarian cysts but also the hormonal and metabolic aspects of the condition.

In summary, while PCOS and PCOD are related terms, PCOS is a more comprehensive and clinically recognized syndrome that includes a range of symptoms and hormonal imbalances beyond just the presence of ovarian cysts. PCOD, on the other hand, primarily refers to the physical appearance of the ovaries with multiple cysts and may not necessarily encompass the full spectrum of PCOS-related symptoms.

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